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Legislation Publications Pension models About project Statistics

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I. Overview of gender issues in pension systems from different countries
1.1. Pension system reform and gender equality issues
1.2. European Union countries with a developed „social state”
1.3. Post-socialistic countries

CHAPTER 2. Gender analysis of pension and labor legislation of the Republic of Moldova
2.1. International labor standards and national legislation of the Republic of Moldova
2.2. Legal insurance of equal access to labor and professional occupations: employment guarantees
2.3. Right to free choice of profession, professional training and retraining, professional promotion. Restrictions related to women’s work
2.4. Equal remuneration for the work of equal value
2.5. Right to healthy and safe working conditions. Guarantees and privileges for pregnancy and maternity
2.6. Right to social insurance including right to pension

CHAPTER 3. Analysis of demographic context of gender issues in the Republic of Moldova
3.1. Gender asymmetry of sex/age structure of the population of the Republic of Moldova
3.2. Differences in conditions and causes of mortality of men and women, men’s over mortality rate
3.3. Gender discrepancy of the indexes of life expectancy in Moldova and their dynamics
3.4. Life expectancy on pension
3.5. Gender differences in the correlation between the duration of the working life and life on pension
3.6. Impact of birthrate on the workers length of insured service

CHAPTER 4. Labor market of the Republic of Moldova and its impact on the trends of pension system reform: gender aspects
4.1. Economic activity, employment and unemployment
4.2. Employment by economic sectors

CHAPTER 5. Salaries and incomes

CHAPTER 6. Informal employment

CHAPTER 7. Issues of social breaks in employment

CHAPTER 8. Gender issues of current pensioners
8.1. Gender structure of pensioners

CHAPTER 9. Forecast of the specifics of pension insurance of men and women, pension transfers between sexes in the established pension system

CHAPTER 10. Gender analysis of the formulas for old-age pension calculation
10.1. Analysis of old pension formula for calculation of old-age pension
10.2. Analysis of the new pension formula for calculation of old-age pension
10.3. Change of gender discrepancy in pensions in the transition to the new pension formula

CHAPTER 11. Increase of the retirement age. Equalizing the retirement age?
11.1. Advantages and disadvantages of the retirement age increase and its “equalization” for men and women
11.2. Individual pension burden or correlation between the duration of the able-bodied age and duration of life on pension
11.3. Change of the probability of living until the retirement for men and women under different scenarios of the retirement age increase

CONCLUSIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY




Gender aspects of the Republic of Moldova’s pension system

3.1. Gender asymmetry of sex/age structure of the population of the Republic of Moldova

For about two decades, Moldova is related to the countries, where the population is decreasing. Only in the period from 1990 to 2006 the decrease of population constituted 772,3 thousand (or 17,9% of the population number). This decrease occurred mostly due to the decrease of women number (in the mentioned period the men number decreased by 358,5 thousand, while the women number – by  413,8 thousand or by 17,3% and 18,2% of the corresponding number of men and women). As result the population gender asymmetry has decreased a little: if in 1990 the rate of women in the total population was 52,4%, in 2006 – 52,1%.

In 2006 in Moldova there were 1870,0 women and 1719,3 men. The prevalence of women is not characteristic for all age groups. Among children, teenagers and youth from 0 to 30 years the boys and young men are more than girls due to demographic standard differences between boys and girls among newborn. As a rule 100 newborn girls account for 104-106 newborn boys (in 2004 in Moldova this correlation represented 104). In the number of population of older ages the number of women prevails, moreover there is a clear dependence: the older is the age population category, the greater is the women’ rate. For example, in the age group of 30-34 years 1000 men account for 1034 women, in the age group of 50-54 years – 1155 women, and in the age group of 70-74 years – 1623 women. In average the women were older than men by 3,2 years, since the average women’s age was 36,2 and men’s age – 33 years (2004 year).

Thus, the current pension insurance system applies mainly to women.

For the last 15 years, the age structure has also changed significantly, since the reduction of the number of men and women occurred mostly due to the reduction of the youth number and insignificant reduction of the number of men and women of able-bodied age (Picture 1). As result (1989-2004) the rate of male youth up to 15 was reduced from 29,8% to 21,2% and old men (aged 65 and older) increased from 6,3% to 7,7%; for women, correspondingly, from 26,2% to 18,5% and from 9,8% to 11,8% (Picture 2). The result of these changes was gradual population ageing, moreover the female population was and remains older than male population. The average age of men and women was changed almost equally: in the given period the women became older by 3,7 in average and men – by 3,8 years.

According to the analysis of gender asymmetry of pension system (and exactly gender asymmetry of pension beneficiaries), the most important is the existence of a direct dependence between the age of the persons of pension age and rate of women among them. So, according to Moldovan demographic statistic data, in 2004 1000 men aged 55-59 accounted for more than a quarter of women, in the age group 60-69 – women are more on a third and at the age of 70 and older – women are twice more.

 

 
Source: data of the National Statistics Bureau.

In the documents of the UN Second World Assembly on ageing, hold in Madrid in April 2002 it was shown that that in the world 328 million women aged 60 and older account for only 265 million men1 (or 808 men per 1000 women). Now in the Republic of Moldova the gender asymmetry of old people structure is significantly higher than average world indexes: in 2004 1000 women accounted for only 647 men.


1. Working materials of the UN Second World Assembly on ageing issues. Madrid, 2002.

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