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Legislation Publications Pension models About project Statistics
Legislation Publications Pension models About project Statistics

1. Introduction

2. Actuary expertise
2.1. Contents of the actuary expertise
2.2. Actuary control cycle
2.3. Actuary expertise tools

3. Basics of the pension legislation of the Republic of Moldova
3.1. General principles
3.2. Social insurance contributions and taxable basis
3.3. Pension types and conditions of their assignment
3.3.1. Old age pensions
3.3.2. Disability pensions
3.3.3. Survivors pensions
3.3.4. Pensions to some categories of citizens
3.3.5. Social pensions/benefits
3.3.6. Pensions paid from the state budget
3.4. Minimal pension and guaranteed minimum
3.5. Pension formulas
3.6. Pension indexation

4. Demographic situation in the Republic of Moldova
4.1. Dynamics of population number and sex/age structure
4.2. Birth rate
4.3. Mortality and life expectancy
4.4. Marriage and divorce rates
4.5. Population natality and reproduction
4.6. Demographic forecast

5. Current macroeconomic situation
5.1. Tendencies of population economic activity
5.2. Development of basic forecast

6. Background information on pension insurance
6.1. Number of pensioners
6.1.1. Analysis of the number of pensioners
6.1.2. Distribution of the number of pensioners by pension types
6.1.3. Sex/age number of pensioners
6.2. Pensioner’ standard of living
6.2.1. Average size of pensions
6.2.2. Compensation of lost wage
6.2.3. Gender differences in pension sizes

7. Modeling outputs

8. Outputs and perspectives of the development of pension system of the Republic of Moldova

9. Annex: Analysis of the risks of the Non-Financial Defined Contribution (NDC) and Financial Defined Contribution (FDC) pension systems
9.1. Principles of the design of NDC pension system
9.2. Principles of the design of FDC pension system
9.3. Experience of applying FDC schemes
9.4. Comparison of NDC and Funded schemes




Pension system of the Republic of Moldova: actuary expertise

4.3. Mortality and life expectancy

The dynamics of the indicators of mortality and life expectancy in the Republic of Moldova, compared to natality indicators, is characterized by a certain peculiarity. The evident worsening of indices was only in 1989-1995. In the next decade the indicators varied, but the discrepancies were small, remaining on the higher level than in the middle of ‘90th.

Table 4.13
Dynamics of general mortality indicators in the Republic of Moldova in 1989-2005.


Years

Absolute number of deceased

General mortality coefficient
(number of deceased per 1000 persons)

1989

40113

9.2

1995

52969

12.2

1996

49748

11.5

1997

42957

11.8

1998

39922

10.9

1999

41315

11.3

2000

41224

11.3

2001

40075

11.0

2002

41852

11.6

2003

43079

11.9

2004

41668

11.6

2005

44689

12.4

This dynamics was specific both for urban and rural population. In both cases 1995 year was the worst for the studied period.

Table 4.14
Dynamics of general mortality coefficients for urban and rural population of the Republic of Moldova in 1990-2005.


Years

Urban population

Rural population

1990

7.4

11.9

1995

9.3

14.7

1996

9.2

13.4

1997

9.2

13.6

1998

8.6

12.6

1999

8.8

13.1

2000

8.8

13.2

2001

8.6

12.8

2002

8.8

13.5

2003

9.1

13.9

2004

8.9

13.4

One of the most important social indicator – the index of infant mortality, after a small period of growth (1990-1994) was characterized by a stable decrease higher in rural habitats than in urban that has led to a certain closing of the indicators. So great (double in 10 years) reduction of infant mortality is conditioned by the improvement of the situation related to the maternity and childhood protection, as well as due to the fact that these years were characterized by rapid decrease of the number of births, decrease of the share of born of the senior birth orders.

Table 4.15
Dynamics of infant mortality in the Republic of Moldova in 1990-2005.


Years

Number of deaths at the age of up to 1 year per 1000 born

Total population

Urban population

Rural population

1990

19.0

17.0

20.6

1995

21.2

19.5

22.3

1996

20.2

18.7

21.1

1997

19.8

16.8

21.3

1998

17.5

20.5

16.0

1999

18.2

20.7

16.9

2000

18.3

19.3

17.8

2001

16.3

16.9

16.0

2002

14.7

15.1

14.4

2003

14.4

13.9

14.6

2004

12.2

12.0

12.3

2005

12.2

 

 

The indexes of life expectancy for men and women changed simultaneously: after the decrease of the indices in 1990-1995 by 3 years for men and 2,3 for women, a small growth occurred in 1998 and then small fluctuations between 64-64,5 years for men and 71,5-72 years for women. A small worsening of indices in 2005 does not give reasons to consider it as the beginning of a new tendency. Comparing the life expectancy in Moldova and Russian indices we could see that the indices for women are at the level of Russian indices or a little lower. While the life expectancy of men in Moldova is higher than in Russia by about 5-5,5 years.

Gender differences are not so great as in Russia: the life expectancy of women at birth exceeds this index for men by 7-8 years (in Russia – by 13,5 years).

Table 4.16
Dynamics of the average life expectancy at birth in the Republic of Moldova in 1990-2005.


years

Both sexes

men

women

Difference in the average life expectancy of women and men

1990

68.64

65.05

72.02

6.97

1991

67.69

64.18

71.02

6.84

1992

67.90

63.88

71.82

7.94

1993

67.62

64.03

71.06

7.03

1994

66.05

62.28

69.77

7.49

1995

65.88

62.01

69.73

7.72

1996

66.72

62.96

70.40

7.44

1997

66.98

63.25

70.64

7.39

1998

67.93

64.20

71.57

7.37

1999

67.63

63.79

71.40

7.61

2000

67.75

63.99

71.45

7.46

2001

68.28

64.54

71.94

7.40

2002

68.11

64.39

71.76

7.37

2003

68.07

64.42

71.66

7.24

2004

68.58

64.63

72.49

7.86

2005

67.9

63.8

71.7

7.9

The life expectancy of urban inhabitants is higher by 3.3,5 years than of rural inhabitants. This difference is higher than in Russia, where it constitutes about 2,5 years.

Table 4.17
Average life expectancy at birth for urban and rural population of the Republic of Moldova in 1989-2005.


years

Urban population

Rural population

Both sexes

men

women

Both sexes

men

women

1989

70.6

66.8

73.9

67.6

63.9

70.9

2000

 

65.0

72.6

 

63.1

70.4

2001

69.6

65.7

73.6

67.3

63.6

70.9

2002

69.7

65.9

73.7

67.1

63.4

70.7

2003

 

66.3

73.4

 

63.3

70.8

2004

 

66.6

74.2

 

63.4

71.4

2005

70.0

66.1

74.0

66.5

62.4

70.6

The differences in the life expectancy of men and women are determined first of all by the difference in the level of mortality of able-bodied men and women. The maximum value of men’s mortality coefficients is specific for the age of 20-30 (by 3 times higher than women’s). With age the difference in the mortality indices and, correspondingly, of men’s and women’s life expectancy is decreasing from 7-8 years at birth to 3-3,5 years at the age of 60.


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