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Legislation Publications Pension models About project Statistics
Legislation Publications Pension models About project Statistics

1. Introduction

2. Actuary expertise
2.1. Contents of the actuary expertise
2.2. Actuary control cycle
2.3. Actuary expertise tools

3. Basics of the pension legislation of the Republic of Moldova
3.1. General principles
3.2. Social insurance contributions and taxable basis
3.3. Pension types and conditions of their assignment
3.3.1. Old age pensions
3.3.2. Disability pensions
3.3.3. Survivors pensions
3.3.4. Pensions to some categories of citizens
3.3.5. Social pensions/benefits
3.3.6. Pensions paid from the state budget
3.4. Minimal pension and guaranteed minimum
3.5. Pension formulas
3.6. Pension indexation

4. Demographic situation in the Republic of Moldova
4.1. Dynamics of population number and sex/age structure
4.2. Birth rate
4.3. Mortality and life expectancy
4.4. Marriage and divorce rates
4.5. Population natality and reproduction
4.6. Demographic forecast

5. Current macroeconomic situation
5.1. Tendencies of population economic activity
5.2. Development of basic forecast

6. Background information on pension insurance
6.1. Number of pensioners
6.1.1. Analysis of the number of pensioners
6.1.2. Distribution of the number of pensioners by pension types
6.1.3. Sex/age number of pensioners
6.2. Pensioner’ standard of living
6.2.1. Average size of pensions
6.2.2. Compensation of lost wage
6.2.3. Gender differences in pension sizes

7. Modeling outputs

8. Outputs and perspectives of the development of pension system of the Republic of Moldova

9. Annex: Analysis of the risks of the Non-Financial Defined Contribution (NDC) and Financial Defined Contribution (FDC) pension systems
9.1. Principles of the design of NDC pension system
9.2. Principles of the design of FDC pension system
9.3. Experience of applying FDC schemes
9.4. Comparison of NDC and Funded schemes




Pension system of the Republic of Moldova: actuary expertise

6.1.3. Sex/age number of pensioners

Old age pensioners
The pictures 6.8 and 6.9 present the sex/age profiles of the number of pensioners for 2003 and 2005, differentiated by pension types.

From the pictures it is clear seen that the age profiles of agricultural and non-agricultural pensioners-men have similar features with the corresponding profiles of pensioners-women.

At the same time the age structure of pensioners by pension types varies significantly. Here it had to be taken into consideration that this structure was established mainly under the influence of the old pension legislation, stipulating another retirement age, high number of pensioners having the right to privileged (pre-term) pensions and also to seniority pensions, giving the right to earlier retirement.

The analysis of the graphs for middle ages (men – up to 62, women – up to 57) shows that the number of women among privileged pensioners is almost twice higher than men. These are mainly mothers who gave birth and grew up five and more children up to 8. Their number is divided uniformly between agricultural and non-agricultural pensioners.

At advanced ages (men – over 62, women – over 57) the graphs of the sex/age structure of old-age pensioners are not stable and differ for agricultural and non-agricultural pensioners.

For the old age pensioners, retired before ‘90th (these are the persons having now 70 years and over) is characteristic the prevalence of agricultural pensioners. Their number is about twice higher both among men and women. Their share out of the total number of pensioners constitutes 55% for men and 80% for women.

For the pensioners, retired after 1990 is characteristic the reverse tendency. Among old age pensioners it is noticed a sharp decrease of the number of agricultural pensioners. The number of men went down by about a third, while the number of women – by a quarter. However, if the number of non-agricultural pensioners-men remained almost at the same level, the number of pensioners-women grew up significantly – by about 60% that led to a more considerable decrease of the share of agricultural pensioners-women out of the total number of population compared to men.

The share of agricultural pensioners-women at the retirement age (i.e. at the age of 57) constitutes only about 15% of the total population number and only up to 60 years reaches the level of 30%. While the share of non-agricultural pensioners-women at the retirement age constitutes about 30% and by the age of 60 it reaches the level of 50%.

The same tendencies are specific for pensioners-men (agricultural and non-agricultural). However, they are smoothen by the fact that compared to women the number of non-agricultural pensioners-men did not change significantly in ‘90th, therefore at the retirement age (62 years) both agricultural and non-agricultural pensioners constitute about 20% of the total population number. By 65 years their share out of the total number constitutes 40%. Then the share of non-agricultural pensioners-men is stabilized at the level of 35% and begins to decrease after 75 years. The share of agricultural pensioners continues to increase up to 70 years, achieving more than 50%. By 82 years it amounts to 60% and then it decreases.

The reduction of the share of agricultural pensioners out of the total population number, occurred beginning with ‘90th, could be conditioned by several causes. They could include: the specifics of historical development, economic problems, unemployment growth, reduction of agricultural population number, population ageing, as well as changes in the legislation, increase of the retirement age and required length of service etc.

Disability pensioners
The Picture 6.10 presents the data on sex/age number of pensioners-beneficiaries of disability pensions. The first pensioners-beneficiaries of disability pensions appear after the age of 17. Their number is quite low and by the age of 25 they constitute 0,01% of the total population of the corresponding age. Then their number begins to increase by the exponential law, reaching its peak at pre-pension ages. After the achievement of the retirement age (women – 57 years, men – 62 years) it begins to decrease sharply and is stabilized at advanced pension ages at the level of about 3-5% of the total population number of the corresponding sex and age.


men

women
Picture 6.8. Sex/age number of old age non-agricultural pensioners

men

women
Picture 6.9. Sex/age number of old-age agricultural pensioners


men


women
Picture 6.10. Sex/age number of disability pensioners.

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